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China’s Maritime Territorial Disputes: Origin, Application and Evaluation of the ‘Joint Development’ Formula

Territorial dispute has always been a major aspect of inter-state relations, especially for states bordering multiple neighbours.  With a land boundary of 22,117 km which claims to be the longest in the world, China borders 14 countries on land and has overlapping maritime claims in respect of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf with 8 countries.  China has so far been successful in settling land boundary disputes with all its neighbours except India.  However, the situation is much more complicated in the sea.  While China has already promulgated a number of laws governing its territorial sea, EEZ and continental shelf, the delimitation of its maritime frontier remains an outstanding issue which does not only affect China’s effective control and exploitation of its waters but also cultivation of stable relationships with neighbouring states… (full text)

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